Diseases & Conditions

Blood Pressure

Blood PressureCausesMedicationsPreventionRisk FactorsSymptomsTreatmentTypes

What is Blood Pressure (BP)?

Blood pressure is the pressure that is exerted by the circulating blood on the walls of the blood vessels. A person's BP is usually expressed in terms of the systolic pressure over diastolic pressure (mmHg) that is the maximum over the minimum pressure.

Causes of Blood Pressure

The causes of BP are predominantly undefined. Even doctors treating blood pressure do not know its causes. There are some factors that cannot be changed and others are alterable. There are primary and secondary causes for blood pressure. Primary causes for the blood pressure are those essential causes that involve factors like age, race, etc that cannot be changed. And the most important factor that accounts to essential hypertension is heredity. Secondary causes of BP are factors that are not essential. Usage of alcohol, failure of some other organ in the body, accidents, obesity etc are those causes that account to secondary blood pressure.

Medication for Blood Pressure

Though an extended break from work and other stress-related activities is sufficient to cure blood pressure, medications for blood pressure involves the following:

  • ACE inhibitors
  • Angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB)
  • Beta-blockers
  • Calcium channel blockers (CCBs)
  • Diuretics
  • Alpha-blockers
  • Alpha-beta blockers
  • Clonidine
  • Minoxidil

Prevention of Blood Pressure

Blood pressure is a deadly disease that has to be prevented. Though age, heredity, etc account to the essential reasons for blood pressure, it can be prevented by proper diets and exercises. Maintaining a proper diet and involving in physical exercises can surely prevent blood pressure.

Risk Factors of Blood Pressure

Excessive stress due to different reasons is the main cause of blood pressure. The deadly risk factor of blood pressure is heart attack. People who are aged do not have the ability to hold high pressures. This will land up in jamming of heart. Strokes and attacks are major risk factors. Kidney failure, vision loss also contributes to the risk factors. Heart failure leading to death is the ultimate risk factor.

Symptoms of Blood Pressure

High blood pressure is always known as “silent killer”, as there are no symptoms to recognize it. Only by measuring the pressure, one can find out high blood pressure. But low pressure can be diagnosed through a few symptoms. It shows symptoms like frequent fainting, dizziness, headache etc.

Treatment for Blood Pressure

The most important treatment for blood pressure involves physical exercises and diet maintaining. The diet varies according to the type. People having high blood pressure should avoid taking sodium containing foods like table salt, cooking salt etc. This can reduce 5 mm Hg. And people having low pressure need to take sodium containing foods. Weight loosing can also add up to the treatments. If these lifestyles do not work, then medications under doctor’s advice are compulsory. Dehydration, blood transfusion, implantable pacemaker are some common treatments for blood pressure. Being a lifelong challenge, it requires constant medical attention. Some factors that can influence blood pressure control are weight loss, maintenance of good dietary habits and lifestyle changes.

Types of Blood Pressure

Blood pressure always means high blood pressure though there are two types of blood pressure. Low blood pressure and high blood pressure are those types.

  • Low blood pressure is also known as hypotension. When the flow of blood through the arteries is too low to supply enough oxygen to the organs, the state is said to be low pressure.
  • High blood pressure also known as hypertension is the state that arises due to the rapid flow of blood through the arteries, which is too much of pressure on the blood vessels.